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Referensi

Cause Analysis Tools

Fishbone Diagram

Also Called: Cause-and-Effect Diagram, Ishikawa Diagram

Variations: cause enumeration diagram, process fishbone, time-delay fishbone, CEDAC (cause-and-effect diagram with the addition of cards), desired-result fishbone, reverse fishbone diagram

Description

The fishbone diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories.

When to Use

* When identifying possible causes for a problem.
* Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts.

Procedure

Materials needed: flipchart or whiteboard, marking pens.

1. Agree on a problem statement (effect). Write it at the center right of the flipchart or whiteboard. Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it.
2. Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem. If this is difficult use generic headings:
* Methods
* Machines (equipment)
* People (manpower)
* Materials
* Measurement
* Environment
3. Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow.
4. Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given, the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories.
5. Again ask “why does this happen?” about each cause. Write sub-causes branching off the causes. Continue to ask “Why?” and generate deeper levels of causes. Layers of branches indicate causal relationships.
6. When the group runs out of ideas, focus attention to places on the chart where ideas are few.

Example

This fishbone diagram was drawn by a manufacturing team to try to understand the source of periodic iron contamination. The team used the six generic headings to prompt ideas. Layers of branches show thorough thinking about the causes of the problem.

Fishbone

For example, under the heading “Machines,” the idea “materials of construction” shows four kinds of equipment and then several specific machine numbers.

Note that some ideas appear in two different places. “Calibration” shows up under “Methods” as a factor in the analytical procedure, and also under “Measurement” as a cause of lab error. “Iron tools” can be considered a “Methods” problem when taking samples or a “Manpower” problem with maintenance personnel.

Source: American Society for Quality

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Lahir di Pekalongan, 29 Nopember 1966. Berkeluarga, dengan 2 anak. Sejak SD hingga SLTA Kejuruan lulus di Pekalongan. Menjalani ikatan dinas dari Departemen Kesehatan sejak 1987 di Kebumen. Pada tahun 1996 menyelesaikan program sarjana FISIP, dan pada tahun 2001 lulus program pasca sarjana Manajemen Kesehatan di UGM Yogyakarta. Sejak itu, mulai tertarik pada wilayah kajian pengembangan kinerja (Walah, sok ilmiah..). Bukan apa-apa, karena dalam dunia kerja, apa lagi kerja di kantoran, persoalan kinerja menjadi biang keladi dan akar permasalahan utama. Bagaimana tidak, maju-mundurnya sebuah kantor, organisasi, bahkan dari sistem pemerintahan tergantung dari sini. Trus, dari mana harus mulai, faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi, kendala apa saja yang biasa menghambat pengembangannya. Apa kita bisa memperbaikinya? Hal-hal inilah kemudian yang menjadi motivasi saya untuk membuat blog ini. Eh syukur menjadi tempat berbagi pendapat dan pengalaman. Amin

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