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Organizational citizenship behavior

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) are a special type of work behavior that are defined as individual behaviors that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. These behaviors are rather a matter of personal choice, such that their omission are not generally understood as punishable. OCBs are thought to have an important impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of work teams and organizations, therefore contributing to the overall productivity of the organization.

Dennis Organ of Indiana University is widely credited with introducing OCB in academic literature. In the last three decades, it has grown to become a prominent stream of research.
Scholars hold different views with respect to the dimensionality of OCB. Smith, Organ, and Near (1983) conceptualized OCB with two dimensions: altruism (behavior targeted specifically at helping individuals) and generalized compliance (behavior reflecting compliance with general rules, norms, and expectations). Later Organ (1988) identified five dimensions belonging to OCBs: Altruism, Courtesy, Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness and Sportsmanship. Largely based on Organ’s (1988) five-dimension taxonomy, Williams and Anderson (1991) proposed a two-dimensional conceptualization of OCB: OCB-I (behaviors directed toward Individuals; comprising altruism and courtesy) and OCB-O (behaviors directed toward Organization; comprising the remaining three dimensions in Organ’s (1988) conceptualization). Some scholars also have utilized a unidimensional or overall OCB measure in their research (e.g., Decktop, Mangel, & Cirka, 1999). A most recent meta-analysis conducted by Hoffman, Blair, Meriac, and Woehr (2007) suggested that “current operationalizations of OCB are best viewed as indicators of a general OCB factor…, there is likely little to be gained through the use of separate dimensional measures as opposed to an overall composite measure” (p. 562).

Type of organizational citizenship behaviors:
(1)Altruism (Helping): is selfless concern for the welfare of others. helps others who have been absent, or helps others who have very high work loads.
(2) Courtesy: Take steps to try to prevent problems with other workers.Does not abuse the rights of others.
(3) Civic Virtue: Attends meetings that are not mandatory, but considered important.Keep abreast of changes in the organization.
Conscientiousness: Does not take extra breaks.Obey company rules and regulations even when no one is watching.
(4) Sportsmanship: Consumes a lot of time complaining about trivial matters. Always focuses on what’s wrong, rather than the positive side.
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References
Decktop, J. R., Mangel, R., & Cirka, C. C. (1999). Getting more than you pay for: Organizational citizenship behavior and pay-for-performance plans. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 420–428.
Graham, J. W. (1989). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, operalization, and validation. Unpublished working paper.
Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the Criterion Domain? A Quantitative Review of the OCB Literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555-566.
Moorman, R. H. & Blakely, G. L. (1995). Individualism-Collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 127-142.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior – The Good Soldier Syndrome. (1st ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts/Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company.
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653–663.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601-617.

Source:
The original article online at: wikipedia

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Lahir di Pekalongan, 29 Nopember 1966. Berkeluarga, dengan 2 anak. Sejak SD hingga SLTA Kejuruan lulus di Pekalongan. Menjalani ikatan dinas dari Departemen Kesehatan sejak 1987 di Kebumen. Pada tahun 1996 menyelesaikan program sarjana FISIP, dan pada tahun 2001 lulus program pasca sarjana Manajemen Kesehatan di UGM Yogyakarta. Sejak itu, mulai tertarik pada wilayah kajian pengembangan kinerja (Walah, sok ilmiah..). Bukan apa-apa, karena dalam dunia kerja, apa lagi kerja di kantoran, persoalan kinerja menjadi biang keladi dan akar permasalahan utama. Bagaimana tidak, maju-mundurnya sebuah kantor, organisasi, bahkan dari sistem pemerintahan tergantung dari sini. Trus, dari mana harus mulai, faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi, kendala apa saja yang biasa menghambat pengembangannya. Apa kita bisa memperbaikinya? Hal-hal inilah kemudian yang menjadi motivasi saya untuk membuat blog ini. Eh syukur menjadi tempat berbagi pendapat dan pengalaman. Amin

Discussion

2 thoughts on “Organizational citizenship behavior

  1. artikna disit pa tembe ta komeni
    okeyyyyyyyyyyyyyy…..
    coment to continued

    Posted by wong bodo | June 25, 2008, 7:07 am

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